Cancer survivors are 37% more likely to be unemployed than their healthy counterparts. (See Cancer Survivors Struggle to Find Jobs, Study Finds). There are two likely explanations for this disparity: some cancer survivors are simply not healthy enough to return to work, while others become too expensive to employ because of the added health care costs. It is the treatment of the latter category that concerns me as an employment lawyer.
Pre-screening applicants with a history of cancer from consideration for positions raises two huge red flags: disability discrimination based on a record of an impairment or perceived impairment, and genetic information discrimination. Refusing to hire an applicant based solely on a history of cancer would almost certainly violate both the Americans with Disability Act (and its Ohio counterpart), and possibly the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.
The best defense against this type of claim is not to gather medical information at the application or interview stage. Yet, even when an employer tries to avoid the topic, it can innocently arise. For example, when someone has a two-year gap on his or her resume, it is necessary to ask, “What were you doing for the two years you weren’t working?” For someone who was away from the workforce because of cancer treatments, the answer likely will reveal information that could lead to an inference of discrimination if the applicant is not hired. The best defense against these problems is two-fold:
Meaningful and effective training of interviewers so that they do not fall into these potential traps. For example, instead of asking, “Why weren’t you working?” ask, “What did you do during your gap in employment to keep your skills current?” The latter question will not only avoid the potential disclosure of medical information, but also provide some useful information about the applicant’s skill-set.
Ensuring that the best, most qualified person is hired to fill any vacancy, regardless of medical history and gaps in employment.
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